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Best Budget Essentials by Tracy is the best clothes steamer. Essentials by Tracy Lyn Budget Steamer
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This inexpensive steamer delivers without the frills.

Best for Travel Kexi is our pick for the best clothes steamer. Kexi Portable Travel Steamer
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With a foldable handle and compact design, this stylish steamer saves you time and hassle.

Best High End The Jiffy steamer is our pick for the best clothes steamer. Jiffy Classic Personal Clothing Steamer
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Super durable 6″ metal head and 5.5′ hose for extra-extra-long use.

Whether you’re on a Zoom call or hitting the town, wrinkle-free clothing is essential for an elevated, put-together look. The best clothes steamers are the perfect alternative to traditional ironing, since they’re super easy to use, convenient, and don’t require an ironing board. Some are even compact enough for travel, so you can steam those crumpled-up shirts from your suitcase before seeing the sights.

But steamers aren’t only for clothing. They can spruce up your best pillow shams, drapes, bed skirts, wall hangings, or tapestries. To ensure you’re purchasing a steamer of top quality and durability, we did our research to find you the best six clothes steamers to keep your fabrics smooth and looking fresh.

How we selected the best clothes steamers

There are several crucial points to consider when selecting a steamer. We looked at efficiency. How fast does said steamer heat up and get out those creases? Nobody wants to stand there for twenty minutes going over the same wrinkle.

Safety was also of utmost concern since we’re dealing with hot steam. We want to ensure the product has built-in safety measures so you won’t get burned. And finally, we looked at the cost. Whether you’re using this steamer for professional use, travel, or quick, routine maintenance, we want to make sure you’re getting the most bang for your buck.

Buying Guide

Types of Clothes Steamers

Steamers work by using electrical energy to warm up the water you’ve filled into the product’s reservoir. Once heated, it turns the water into water vapor, which shoots out of a nozzle you’ll point toward your garment. The steam loosens the fabric and acts like an eraser for wrinkles.

Before you begin shopping for a garment steamer, though, you should figure out the type of steamer you require. There are three main types of steamers:

  • Portable. These are steamers specifically for on the go or travel use, as they are the smallest in size (small enough to fit into a suitcase or weekend bag). The features will depend on the model, but these models often forego some bells and whistles in the name of saving space.
  • Upright. Upright steamers are often used by professionals, as they take up much more space than a handheld or portable. The base sits on the ground with a long hose and nozzle for the steam. The main perk is they have longer continuous steam time, since they’re more powerful. 
  • Handheld. Handhelds are a blend of portable and upright. They’re usually medium-sized, so you can transport them in a pinch. . Usually, the main difference is size. Some will come with attachments, like a brush head.

What to Look For

There are so many garment steamers on the market, so it’s important to narrow down your options of the best clothes steamers by identifying a few key elements:

  • Size. If you’re primarily looking for a travel steamer, for example, you’ll want something compact that can easily fit in a suitcase or travel bag. If you only plan to use it at home and have room in a closet, an upright offers more power and extra features.
  • Heating time. You don’t want to be standing around forever waiting for your steamer to heat up. Generally, your steamer should be able to heat up around the 60 second mark. If you’re waiting for more than two minutes, find a different option. 
  • Safety features. Make sure your steamer comes with burn-proof features like auto shut-off and a leak-proof nozzle. 
  • Water tank capacity. This matters most if you often have multiple items to steam. Steamers with a more generous water tank capacity save you time and hassle if you’re steaming in bulk. Smaller steamers are around 140 mL, while larger, professional-grade steamers can be around 2.5 Liters.
  • Steam settings. Some clothes steamers come with customizable steam settings (gentler or more powerful depending on the fabric you’re steaming). However, note that many budget-friendly options don’t usually come with multiple steam settings. This is usually reserved for higher end products.

Best Budget Clothes Steamer: Essentials by Tracy Lyn Budget Steamer

Steam player

This inexpensive steamer delivers without the frills. Essentials by Tracy Lyn

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Why We Picked It: This super-simple steamer offers everything you need on the road without extra bulk or cost.

Made by a family-owned business specializing in home and office products, this is the perfect steamer if you just want something cheap and simple, without the frills.  It only includes the steamer itself–no measuring cups or add-on brushes, which can be a pain to replace if you lose them. The clear side of the container shows how much water it has inside, while clearly marked minimum and maximum lines prevent overfilling.

 It only weighs 12 ounces and easily fits into a travel bag or small suitcase in transit. 

It’s leakproof and comes with an auto shut-off feature for added safety and peace of mind. It’s incredibly easy to use: unscrew the nozzle cap, fill the water tank to the “MAX” line, screw the top back on, and press on. Wait 60 seconds, a voilá! Plus, it can work with both distilled and tap water, which is handy when you’re in a hotel room.

Pros: Cons: 
  • Inexpensive
  • Does not include brush, measuring cup, or attachments
  • Simple to use
  • Requires water refilling after each garment
  • Portable/Excellent for travel
  • Ultra-lightweight (12 oz)
  • Water heats quickly (under 60 seconds)
  • Best Clothes Steamer for Professional Use: Pur Steam Professional Heavy Duty Steamer

    Pro mister

    For professional or heavy duty use, this steamer offers 60 minutes of continuous steaming. PurSteam World’s Best Steamers

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    Why We Picked It:

    Maybe you’re a fashion stylist, model, or blogger. Perhaps you’re a fashion influencer and have to ensure your clothes are top-notch and wrinkle-free. This heavy-duty steamer from Pur Steam hits all our pressure points for a high-quality, professional-grade steamer. 

    With a 2.5-liter water tank that heats up in under a minute, you’ll have sixty minutes of continuous steaming, ensuring you don’t have to keep running to the sink to refill between garments. 

    It also features a four-level steam adjustment for customizable control, lots of useful attachments, including a deluxe multifunctional hanger and a  fabric brush. The pant press helps get perfect creases. It even comes with its own mini ironing board because sometimes you want to take a two-pronged approach to wrinkle elimination. For safety, a burn-prevention cap that prevents opening the water tank keeps you safe. This feature set makes it a total steal at this price point.

    While any professional steam system is obviously going to be significantly larger than a portable, the adjustable height makes it considerably more versatile. You don’t have to hang your garments on the shower curtain rod to steam them. It easily folds down to fit in any closet.

    Pros: Cons: 
  • 60 minutes continuous streaming
  • Can be noisy
  • Customizable steam control
  • Requires more storage space
  • Comes with multiple attachments
  • No auto shut-off
  • Manufacturer warranty
  • Best Clothes Steamer for Travel: Kexi Portable Travel Steamer

    Portable power

    With a foldable handle and compact design, this stylish steamer saves you time and hassle.
    Kexi

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    Why We Picked It: This quick-heating steamer has a handy flat smoothing surface that takes the place of add-ons. 

    This leak-proof, travel-friendly steamer with a foldable handle from Kexi is as efficient as it is stylish. With 25 g /min of steam output and a high temp flow, it’s able to quickly remove all the wrinkles out of your garments in under 3 minutes. Plus, it only takes 40 seconds to heat up.

    One feature we love is the protruding corner at the top of the steamer, mirroring the top of a traditional iron. This can be used to smooth out buttons, seams, and collars and eliminates the need for added attachments, which saves space.

    It’s also loaded with safety features. The garment steamer will automatically shut off after 12 minutes of continuous operation, and has a built-in temperature control so it won’t overheat. This keeps both you and your items safe from potential burns.

    Pros: Cons: 
  • 40 second heat time
  • Some reviewers say it was on the heavier side (under 20 lbs)
  • Several safety features
  • Some reviewers experienced a longer cool down time
  • Dual steam and dry ironing capability
  • Pricey
  • Foldable handle for easy packing
  • Comes with warranty
  • Best 2-in-1 Steamer & Iron: SALAV 2-in-1 Handheld Clothes Steamer

    Dual duty

    This 2-in-1 steamer and dry iron is great for vertical and horizontal garment handling. SALAV

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    Why We Picked It: The wide ceramic face works just like an iron in addition to the typical steaming function.

    Multi-tasking gadgets are great when they can actually deliver While most of the time a steamer can get the job done, sometimes you’ll find a fabric that prefers a dry ironing approach to eliminating wrinkles. It’s nice to have the option, especially for under $60.

    This steamer side features an ultra-long heating chamber for extremely efficient output, making for incredibly powerful steam action that’s ready in under a minute. The dry ironing features ceramic-coated metal, which is safe for even temperature-sensitive delicates. 

    The steamer’s mouth is wide enough for super-quick steaming, and that it’s a total space saver if you don’t have room to store a steamer, iron, and ironing board. It’s particularly handy if you regularly switch back and forth between fabrics and surfaces like in a home staging situation.

    Pros: Cons: 
  • Iron and steamer combo
  • Could be heavy for some customers
  • Attractive design
  • Some reviewers experienced sputtering
  • Space saving
  • Requires refilling more often
  • Cost-efficient
  • Heats up quickly
  • Best High End Clothes Steamer: Jiffy Classic Personal Clothing Steamer

    Smooth operator

    Super durable 6″ metal head and 5.5′ hose for extra-extra-long use. Jiffy Steamer

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    Why We Picked It: Sturdy construction and a large water reservoir for marathon steam sessions.

    For those who appreciate the finer steams in life, this steamer is perfect for both personal and light commercial use. With 1300 watts of steaming power, it has a whopping two-hour steam time per filling, perfect for bulk session. The metal head has brass pins in the steam holes, creating extra hot steam for those tougher creases. 

    It features solid die cast aluminum outer housing for added durability, as well as a 5.5-foot flexible hose, which comes in handy for big lengths of fabric like curtains. While this is the heaviest model on our list (at almost 18 lbs), the 360° easy-roll casters on the base makes moving around your space a breeze.

    The metal, brass, and wooden construction help justify the higher price point. However, having a metal steamer does mean it’s a heavier product than your plastic alternatives. 

    Pros: Cons: 
  • Super durable and well crafted
  • Heavy
  • 360° easy to roll casters on steamer base
  • Loud gurgling heating sound
  • Large water tank for 2 hours of steaming
  • Pricey
  • Best Clothes Steamer Overall: OGHom Handheld Garment Steamer

    Overall champ

    A little bit of everything all rolled into one. OGHom

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    Why We Picked It:

    The OGHom Handheld Garment Steamer hits all the crucial points you’d want in a steamer, at a very low price. 

    With a 240 ml water tank, it’s compact enough for travel while large enough for fifteen minutes of continuous steaming. That’s plenty if you’re just getting your outfit ready for the day. It’s also super easy to use, with a nine-foot cord to easily move around your space. 

    While it takes an extra minute to heat up, we think the price point, efficiency, size, built-in safety features, and durability are worth that extra wait time. This is one of the best clothes steamers for anyone who’s looking for a quick and simple solution to their wrinkled clothing, that’s not going to crap out on them.

    Pros: Cons: 
  • Budget-friendly
  • Takes 2 minutes to heat up (others ready in under 1)
  • 9 foot cord
  • No info on temperature
  • 240ml. Water tank
  • Compact enough for travel and easy storage
  • Anti-Rust
  • FAQs

    Q: Steamer vs Iron: Which is better?

    This depends on what you are ironing and what is more comfortable for you to use. Many people find ironing to be difficult to master, whereas clothes steamers allow the hot steam to do all the work for you. Irons are also not as convenient or practical if you are traveling, unless your hotel comes with an iron and ironing board.

    If your clothing or fabrics have beads, sequins, or other decorations that ironing could damage, you’ll want to opt for a steamer. Steamers are also much more compact to store if you don’t have extra space.

    Irons, however, do offer more control if you have super tough creases to get out, especially on sturdier fabrics like wool. They’re also better if you want crisp edges or pleats on dress shirts or pants.

    Q: What fabrics should not be steamed?

    Anything that can melt should not be steamed. For example, if your garment has a plastic coating or decoration, these can melt when hit with super hot steam. Be careful when steaming silk, chiffon, and velvet. Try avoiding touching the nozzle to these more delicate fabrics to avoid damaging the items.

    Q: What type of water should you feel your steamer with?

    While many items say tap water is fine, you would probably benefit most from using distilled or purified water. This ensures you won’t get mineral buildup in your steamer, especially if you live in a place with hard water.

    A final word about clothes steamers

    The best clothes steamers create a more put-together, elevated look without having to store an iron and ironing board. Whether you’re going for a quick and simple approach or opting for more frills, purchasing a garment steamer is a worthwhile investment at any price point. While portable steamers can even be taken with you during travel, professional-grade clothes steamers are perfect for steaming in bulk. Enjoy your enhanced wardrobe!

    The post Best clothes steamers to successfully wrangle wrinkles appeared first on Popular Science.

    一个城市公墓是一个神奇真菌的避难所 //www.ditshub.com/environment/mushroom-hunting-green-wood-cemetery/ 劳伦·莱弗 周四,02 Sep 2021 13:00:00 +0000 环境 科学类 生物多样性 城市 生态学 长篇大论 蘑菇 //www.ditshub.com/?p=394353 < div class = " SingleImage SingleImage——中心SingleImage hasCaption”> < div class = " SingleImage-wrapper " > < img宽度= " 1104 "高度= " 828 " src = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2.jpg?width=1440 "类=“SingleImage-image webfeedsFeaturedVisual wp-post-image“alt = "了盖牛肝菌菇在生材公墓纽约布鲁克林" loading="lazy" style="展示:街区;保证金:汽车;margin-bottom: 5 px; max-width:" link_thumbnail="" srcset="//www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2.jpg?width=1440 1104w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2-300x225.jpg 300w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2-1024x768.jpg 1024w,早在我们7月的蘑菇搜寻中,Sigrid Jakob发现了一个有裂缝的瓶盖。When you expose the inner tissue to air, it slowly begins to turn from white to blue, as pictured along the torn edge here. Lauren Leffer

    Spaces for the dead are becoming stepping stones to wildlife discovery.

    The post An urban cemetery is a surprising sanctuary for fantastic fungi appeared first on Popular Science.

    < div class = " SingleImage SingleImage——中心SingleImage hasCaption”> < div class = " SingleImage-wrapper " > < img宽度= " 1104 "高度= " 828 " src = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2.jpg?width=1440 "类=“SingleImage-image webfeedsFeaturedVisual wp-post-image“alt = "了盖牛肝菌菇在生材公墓纽约布鲁克林" loading="lazy" style="展示:街区;保证金:汽车;margin-bottom: 5 px; max-width:" link_thumbnail="" srcset="//www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2.jpg?width=1440 1104w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2-300x225.jpg 300w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2021/09/01/Cracked_Cap_Bolete2-1024x768.jpg 1024w,早在我们7月的蘑菇搜寻中,Sigrid Jakob发现了一个有裂缝的瓶盖。When you expose the inner tissue to air, it slowly begins to turn from white to blue, as pictured along the torn edge here. Lauren Leffer

    About midway through my walk in New York City’s Green-Wood cemetery with Sigrid Jakob and Potter Palmer, I spot a golf ball-sized orange orb poking up through mown grass. “A yellow puffball! You found it,” Jakob says. It’s a hazy, humid July morning, but the past few days have provided a break from the summer rains. Before we passed under the gothic arches and into the cemetery’s expansive grounds, Jakob warned me that there might not be much to see with the recent dryness. “Today is not the day to look,” she says. 

    Once we’re among the headstones, however, there’s something for us to pause and examine every few steps. ”There’s a number of fungi here that are normally very rare, like our yellow puffball,” she says. “We’ve seen them maybe once [elsewhere] in New York City, but here they’re in the hundreds.”  

    The puffball anomaly is just one of many mysteries Jakob and Palmer, both self-taught mycologists, are hoping to shed light on. Together, they lead the Green-Wood Fungi Phenology Project, a crowdsourced effort that documents the surprising array of mushrooms present in the almost 200-year-old cemetery. So far, they say nearly 300 unique species have been identified within the gates—many rare, and some entirely new to the continent.

    Jakob and Palmer fell into their work surveying Green-Wood’s fungi almost by accident, but through it they’ve highlighted what citizen science can do: bring a community of mushroom hunters together and discover a hidden biodiversity treasure trove. The group’s observations underscore the notable fungi diversity in the cemetery, along with the critical relationship between mushrooms and its beloved, old trees—partnerships of mutual survival.

    The project also demonstrates how unique greenspaces like urban cemeteries can play an unexpected, yet important conservation role in cityscapes. Recent research from around the world has shown that the sacred spaces support a wide array of life, including many protected species that would otherwise be squeezed out by the human thrum. Though Jakob and Palmers’ study is in its early stages, both hope that cataloging the tinier residents of Green-Wood could be a stepping stone to broader discoveries. 

    Mushroom hunters and amateur mycologists in Green-Wood Cemetery
    Sigrid Jakob (left) and Potter Palmer (right) leading a public fungi walk in Green-Wood cemetery. Photo: Courtesy of Potter Palmer

    There’s a common joke among naturalists that mycologists, who survey the ground, are always running into bird watchers, who eyeball the treetops. The first time Palmer heard the line, it was in reference to Jakob, who’s the current president of the New York Mycological Society—a nonprofit that leads mushroom walks throughout the city. She grew up noticing and admiring the fungi around her village in Germany, but assumed there weren’t many in her first few decades of living in New York City. One day, though, a switch flipped. “I started to see them,” she says. “Just suddenly they were everywhere.” She started identifying one and after another, and eventually, realized that there was a local club of enthusiasts where she could glean more knowledge.

    Palmer, on the other hand, began simply as an amateur naturalist who discovered fungi through his strolls in the cemetery. “There are so many of us who haunt Green-Wood,” he says. Initially, he got involved in a project tracking seasonal changes through tree monitoring, but then slowly began noticing the array of interesting mushrooms at his feet. He used the iNaturalist app to record his findings, and that’s how he and Jakob connected. “I started to get my pictures ID-ed by Sigrid,” he says.

    [Related: 9 cool ways your family can help scientists collect data]

    To make those identifications, Jakob uses a backpack-sized laboratory that contains all the equipment needed to extract and amplify fungal DNA, including a microscope and a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) machine. Once she’s processed a sample, she sends it off for sequencing to reveal each fungi’s genetic code. But that’s only for the trickiest circumstances. “I definitely exhaust every other avenue,” she says, “including spore prints, microscopy, field guides, and just looking at, smelling, and tasting the thing.” 

    Searching for answers intuitively is part of what makes the hobby fun, she adds. “Otherwise you’re paying four bucks for somebody to give you a name, but you don’t really understand the mushroom any better.”

    One of Jakob’s most surprising identifications so far has been Inocybe porcorum, a diminutive brown, gilled mushroom that had previously only been found in a single location in Finland. She verified the ID via DNA sequencing, but the finding brings up more questions than answers. “The two continents have been apart for like 500 million years. So to find two species that have not even speciated away from each other, on two continents is like, ‘how did that happen?’,” Jakob says. It’s possible that the fungus was transported here, but it was found growing connected to the roots of a native tree, meaning it didn’t likely travel to Brooklyn with a European seedling. 

    Another similar shock was Psathyrella madida, a nondescript species Jakob says had only ever been found before in a boggy Swedish meadow She also identified a West Coast bolete she believes hitchhiked into Green-Wood in the roots of a planted Douglas fir.

    Jakob concedes that some of these mushrooms could be more widespread, but are just overlooked, particularly in the US where fungi are less well-surveyed than in Europe. However, some species (like those yellow puffballs) get more attention. Lots of mycologists have searched for them, and seen them only occasionally, she says, indicating true rarity.

    And rare species aren’t the only thing the surveys have uncovered. Palmer notes he’s also observed some unexpected relationships between more familiar fungi and trees. “Sometimes you see domestic species that are supposed to only grow with eastern white pines that have actually started to collaborate with Himalayan pines,” he says.

    ”And some trees have a fantastic array of mushrooms around them, while some trees have absolutely none,” adds Jakob, even in the same species. “We don’t know what’s going on, but we’re interested in finding out.”

    Orange puffball mushroom with spores
    Jakob pulls apart a yellow puffball, revealing the collection of spores inside. Photo: Lauren Leffer

    Here’s what we do know. Fungi generally fit into one of three ecological roles: decomposers, parasites, and symbiotes. The first break down organic matter, recycling nutrients back into the ecosystem. In a city, decomposers could be found on anything from dead leaves and grass clippings to piles of poop on the sidewalk.

    The second, parasitic fungi, siphon off resources from plants and other organisms rather than scavenging scraps. Sometimes they can spread and kill swathes of full-grown trees, like the oak wilt first found in Brooklyn in 2016.

    But the fungal lifestyle Jakob and Palmer refer back to most frequently during our walk are the symbiotes, or mycorrhizal mushrooms. These species have quid-pro-quo relationships with specific plants. Through interlocked plant root and fungal filament networks, the hosts offer sugars produced from photosynthesis to the fungi, which provide minerals and other necessities in return. Many mycorrhizae are more efficient at uptaking, transporting, and unlocking minerals from the soil than their plant hosts—facilitating growth that would otherwise be impossible. The group contains most of the prized edibles like truffles and chanterelles, which only thrive around mature, healthy trees. 

    Green-Wood is an accredited arboretum. There are 690 unique species of tree growing there and about 7,000 individuals, many of which are more than a century old.Without the symbiotes, Jakob imagines that many of the cemetery’s trees would become sick or die of nutrient deficiencies. “Apparently up to 50 percent of a tree’s sugar gets funneled towards their mycorrhizal partners for minerals,” she says. And trees are getting a whole boatload back from the fungi, including about half of their needed water, according to the work of forest ecologist Suzanne Simard.

    The trees of Green-Wood play a big role in why there are so many different types of fungus—but they aren’t the whole story. “The cemetery has a lot of microenvironments that are conducive to many different types of fungi,” says Palmer. “It’s pretty diverse in terms of terrain and different vegetation in different places.”

    What’s more, “there’s no trampling, so it’s relatively undisturbed” Jakob says, contrasting the cemetery to nearby Prospect Park where she describes lawn picnics, sports games, and pets as potential limiting factors on mushroom diversity.  An emerging body of research worldwide supports Jakob’s idea that the ways urban cemeteries are used and maintained helps them foster biodiversity in otherwise wildlife-poor places.

    Even in densely populated cities, cemeteries remain comparatively tranquil islands, pruned and filled with greenery to offer peace.

    “Cemeteries are sacred places, where most of the drastic landscape changes (cutting trees, ploughing grasslands, etc.) [have] not happened in the past. Especially in the case of long-established ones, nature is quite undisturbed,” Löki Viktor, a plant ecologist at the Centre for Ecological Research in Hungary, writes in an email.

    In a 2019 review on the topic, Viktor and his colleagues looked at nearly 100 published studies and found 140 protected species listed among the existing biodiversity surveys of cemeteries. They concluded that urban cemeteries offer refuge for rare and endangered species and are important to consider in conservation efforts.

    While fungus-specific studies are limited, in 2020, researchers found that urban and rural cemeteries in the Czech Republic provide habitat for lichen. Lichens spread and propagate in a similar manner to fungus (and are actually a symbiosis between fungi and algae), relying on distribution of spore-like cells, and can be sensitive to environmental factors like air quality, says lead researcher Jakub Horák.

    [Related: A Black community battles an industry that threatens its health—and history]

    Further, in a 2019 paper, urban ecologist Harini Nagendra found “impressive biodiversity,” including unusual and rare species, among the trees in cemeteries and other sacred spaces, in Bangalore, India. She had previously surveyed parks across the same area and says that, anecdotally, the trees in cemeteries “look much larger.” So, why is there so much life hiding among the dead? Planting trees in cemeteries can be part of deeply ingrained traditions and beliefs. In Hindu cemeteries, for instance, Nagendra says, “if you have a loved one then you plant a tree at their grave, and you plant a specific species.” And cemeteries are often simply less trafficked than other green areas of cities, she adds, echoing Jakob and Viktor.

    Even in densely populated cities like Bangalore or New York, cemeteries remain comparatively tranquil islands, pruned and filled with greenery to offer peace.

    An urban cemetery is a surprising sanctuary for fantastic fungi
    Jakob risks a taste of Amanita, a fungi group with hundreds of species worldwide. Photo: Lauren Leffer

    Back in Green-Wood, every time I pose a question, Jakob and Palmer seem to have more of their own. ”Do healthy trees attract more fungi? Do more fungi mean the tree ends up being healthier?,” asks Jakob. These questions don’t yet have clear scientific answers, which has left the opening for citizen scientists to try to tackle them, she adds.

    To do that, they’ll continue working with their team of a dozen or so hyper-involved participants they’ve recruited through iNaturalist. “We’re kind of in an intensive survey phase,” Palmer says. But in the next year, he hopes to start cross-checking their fungal maps with existing survey results on the cemetery’s dirt and trees. “Green-Wood actually has quite an extensive database of the soil quality of the canopy. And I know that they’re open to allowing us to start to use that data.”

    Definitive answers or not, Jakob will certainly continue scanning the Green-Wood grounds. Even a decade of wandering the same cemetery hasn’t taken away from the magic of finding mushrooms. “Fungi are weird,” she says. “They’re like the freaks or the emo kids who sit by the side of the class who nobody talks to.” But that’s what she loves about them: rejected and misunderstood, fungi are still everywhere. It’s a fitting analogy for a group of people hanging out in a cemetery.

    Mid-conversation, I watch Jakob take the tiniest shred of a mushroom cap between two fingertips and place it in her mouth. “This is an Amanita, which are some of the most toxic fungi known to mankind,” she says. I pause, concerned, but she quickly clarifies: “This one doesn’t have a ring [on the stem], so we know it’s actually one of the edible ones.” Nonetheless, she spits out the pulp to the side, having gotten the information she needed from the fungi’s funk, and we continue on.

    The post An urban cemetery is a surprising sanctuary for fantastic fungi appeared first on Popular Science.

    这5个神秘的太空物体横跨在行星和恒星之间 //www.ditshub.com/space/astronomers-spot-new-brown-dwarf-stars/ 查理o伍德 2021年9月2日星期四12:00:00+0000 科学类 空间 棕矮星 融合 星星 //www.ditshub.com/?p=394389
    An illustration of a brown dwarf, a celestial body that is not quite planet, not quite star.
    Brown dwarfs glow warm with the heat from an alternative type of fusion, but fail to ignite the long-term hydrogen fusion reaction that powers stars. NASA/ESA/JPL

    They could help astronomers break down the category of objects known as brown dwarfs.

    The post These 5 mysterious space objects straddle the line between planets and stars appeared first on Popular Science.

    An illustration of a brown dwarf, a celestial body that is not quite planet, not quite star.
    Brown dwarfs glow warm with the heat from an alternative type of fusion, but fail to ignite the long-term hydrogen fusion reaction that powers stars. NASA/ESA/JPL

    Astronomers have spotted five objects that straddle the line between stars and planets—the freshest examples of a rare and enigmatic group of heavenly bodies known as brown dwarfs. 

    Brown dwarfs are often called “failed stars,” because they don’t have quite enough mass to ignite. But in recent decades researchers have wondered whether there’s more to being a brown dwarf than just having a little less heft than a star. By building up a sizable collection of bodies that challenge simplistic definitions, astronomers hope to get a better handle on all the weird permutations of matter the universe can throw at them. 

    “It’s all about answering the broader questions,” says Nolan Grieves, an astronomer at the University of Geneva in Switzerland and lead author of the new research. “What kinds of different star systems are there? What kind of different planet systems are there and how do they form?”

    The brown dwarf desert

    As astronomers have devised increasingly sophisticated methods to watch the way stars flicker and wobble, they’ve identified thousands of strange and wonderful orbiting worlds. But among a sky filled to the brim with heavenly bodies, they’ve found comparatively few middleweight objects, specifically entities weighing between 13 and 80 or so times the mass of Jupiter. 

    These bodies aren’t quite planets, since they have enough mass to smush together deuterium atoms (a heavy variant of hydrogen) and warm themselves with fusion. But they aren’t quite stars either, since they lack the mass necessary to sustainably fuse proper hydrogen and shine for billions of years. Curiously, researchers have confidently located and described just dozens of these objects. In a universe teeming with stars and planets, something appears to be stopping the production of brown dwarfs. 

     “It’s weird because they’re easier to detect” than smaller exoplanets, Grieves says. “It’s really a physical phenomenon that’s occurring.”

    Some researchers suspect the absence of intermediate objects—the “brown dwarf desert”—comes about because the category actually spans two groups that seem similar, but have distinct origins. 

    [Related: Being a heavyweight isn’t enough to turn a brown dwarf into a star]

    The heaviest dwarfs, they argue, are truly failed stars. Each was once a gas cloud that collapsed, but didn’t quite gather enough mass together to start fusing hydrogen and shining. 

    The lighter dwarfs, meanwhile, may be more like super planets. They could have coalesced from the dusty disk that rings a young star. They then hoovered up mass so successfully that they were able to start fusing deuterium. 

    To find out what makes the brown dwarf desert so desolate, astronomers ironically need to find more of them. 

    A planet hunt turns up something else

    Grieves and collaborators were scanning the sky for planets using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which watches stars for subtle dimming that takes place when a planet passes in front. During their investigation, a handful of Jupiter-sized shadows caught their attention. 

    But when they followed up with a 1.2-meter telescope at Chile’s La Silla observatory, they noticed something strange. The team measured how quickly the host stars were wobbling under the gravitational influence of their dim companions, and found that the putative planets possessed monstrous masses—weighing in at 77 to 98 times the mass of Jupiter. That heft put them so close to the upper edge of the textbook brown dwarf mass range that it’s hard to say with confidence what each object is. 

    ”Some are probably more likely stars,” Grieves says, “but they’re right in the realm [of brown dwarfs].” 

    The team published their results in Astronomy & Astrophysics in August.

    Five new dwarfs 

    The researchers can’t draw sweeping conclusions from just five new examples. Nevertheless, the handful of objects does offer some hints that align with common brown dwarf theories. 

    The not-quite-stars are thought to cool and shrink over time, for example. To test that theory, the astronomers  compared the age and size of four of the brown dwarfs. They found that the biggest dwarfs were younger, while the more pint-sized dwarfs were older—as theory would predict. 

    [Related: 168博金宝 ]

    The five are also consistent with the notion that there actually are two types of brown dwarfs: failed stars and super planets. Astronomers expect super planets to be more common around stars with a richer variety of elements for sculpting worlds. Failed stars, meanwhile, might have more erratic orbits since they didn’t mature in the calming cradle of a dusty disk. The new brown dwarf candidates tended to look like what one would expect for failed stars near the mass ceiling. 

    While the line between planets and stars remains blurry, Grieves hopes future observations will bring more brown dwarfs to light. 

    “We are helping build this statistical sample where we’re going to be able to understand more and more all the different star systems around us,” he says.

    The post These 5 mysterious space objects straddle the line between planets and stars appeared first on Popular Science.

    如何在浏览网页时掩盖你的踪迹 //www.ditshub.com/browser-privacy-settings-chrome-firefox-safari-edge/ //www.ditshub.com/browser-privacy-settings-chrome-firefox-safari-edge/#respond 大卫Nield Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:42:08 +0000 自己动手做 技术 苹果 浏览器 CI_2019 谷歌 谷歌浏览器 互联网 微软 微软的优势 mozilla Mozilla Firefox 隐私 游猎 科技黑客 //www.ditshub.com/uncategorized/browser-privacy-settings-chrome-firefox-safari-edge/ < div class = " SingleImage SingleImage——中心SingleImage hasCaption”> < div class = " SingleImage-wrapper " > < img宽度= " 2000 "高度= " 1500 " src = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking.jpeg?width=1440 "类=“SingleImage-image webfeedsFeaturedVisual wp-post-image“alt = "一个女人使用一个苹果Macbook笔记本电脑,而另一个女人的手表" loading="lazy" style="display: block;保证金:汽车;margin-bottom: 5 px; max-width:100%; " link_thumbnail = " " srcset = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking.jpeg?width=1440 2000 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 300 x225.jpeg 300 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 1024 x768.jpeg 1024 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 768 x576.jpeg 768 w,//www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking-1536x1152.jpeg 1536w" sizes="(max-width: 2000px) 100vw, 2000px" />
    This is how it feels once you realize how closely you're being tracked online. Christina @ wocintechchat.com / Unsplash

    Get to know the privacy settings in your browser and how they work.

    The post How to cover your tracks while you’re browsing the web appeared first on Popular Science.

    < div class = " SingleImage SingleImage——中心SingleImage hasCaption”> < div class = " SingleImage-wrapper " > < img宽度= " 2000 "高度= " 1500 " src = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking.jpeg?width=1440 "类=“SingleImage-image webfeedsFeaturedVisual wp-post-image“alt = "一个女人使用一个苹果Macbook笔记本电脑,而另一个女人的手表" loading="lazy" style="display: block;保证金:汽车;margin-bottom: 5 px; max-width:100%; " link_thumbnail = " " srcset = " //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking.jpeg?width=1440 2000 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 300 x225.jpeg 300 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 1024 x768.jpeg 1024 w, //www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/online跟踪- 768 x576.jpeg 768 w,//www.ditshub.com/uploads/2019/02/01/Online-Tracking-1536x1152.jpeg 1536w" sizes="(max-width: 2000px) 100vw, 2000px" />
    This is how it feels once you realize how closely you're being tracked online. Christina @ wocintechchat.com / Unsplash

    This story has been updated. It was originally published on Feb. 17, 2019.

    We all want to stay safe and keep our data private while we’re online. Luckily, many modern browsers have a suite of tools to help, though they don’t always do the best job promoting their built-in privacy features.

    Here we’re going to put that right. We’ll explain all the key privacy controls in Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple’s Safari, and Microsoft Edge, and clarify how to limit how much of your data companies see.

    We’re going to skip over the “do not track” setting you’ll see in your browser. This tells the websites you visit that you don’t want your browsing history logged, but sites largely ignore it, and it’s likely to be removed in the near future.

    How to limit tracking on Google Chrome

    Google Chrome's privacy controls
    Google Chrome gives you a lot of options if you dig into the settings menus. David Nield

    In Chrome’s settings, click the menu button (three dots, top right corner) and choose Settings. Click Privacy and Security and then Cookies and other site data. Click on Allow all cookies to allow sites to save and read cookie data.

    Cookies are bits of text and code that websites leave on your computer, and they help sites remember your location when you’ve provided it, or keep track of stuff you’ve already added to a shopping basket.

    You can browse the web without cookies, but you’ll have to log into sites and reconfigure your settings each time you visit them.

    Most people accept the convenience-for-privacy trade-off. Still, cookies aren’t hugely worrying from a privacy standpoint, as individual sites and web apps can’t see cookies left by other sites and web apps. 

    That is until we get to third-party cookies. These are more advanced cookies that advertising networks use to track you across multiple sites. Because ads use different code to embed themselves into sites, they can build up a profile of your browsing history as you make your way across the web.

    If you want to stop this from happening, stay on the Cookies and other site data menu and click the bubble next to Block third-party cookies. You can also block or allow cookies from specific sites, as well as clear cookies from specific sites as soon as you close your browser (this happens by default for incognito browsing). To do this, click on See all cookies and site data and find the sites you no longer want to track you. You can click on the arrow to the right to see the cookies the site left on your browser, or the trash can to delete them.

    [Related: 5 Google Chrome tips that will level up your browsing]

    Back on the Privacy and Security screen, choose Site settings to control what websites and web apps can access your location, webcam, microphone, clipboard, and attached USB devices. 

    Of course, Google is interested in collecting a lot more data about you as you browse the web (more so than Mozilla, Apple, or Microsoft) and it’s worth remembering that even with protection enabled in your browser, your internet activity can still be logged when you’re signed into sites like Google Maps and YouTube.

    The privacy controls for controlling what Google records about your activities aren’t available in Chrome, so we won’t dive into them here, but you can find them in your Google account—get more details on these and how to configure them here.

    How to limit tracking on Mozilla Firefox

    Mozilla Firefox privacy controls
    Firefox lets you decide how strict you want to be. David Nield

    Fire up Firefox and you’ll find the privacy controls by clicking on the three parallel lines right next to the navigation bar and choosing Settings. Once you’re there, go to Privacy & Security

    The first screen you’ll see is Browser privacy—here, you’ll be able to choose three levels of privacy protection from your browser. Choose Standard to block third-party cookies (the ones that track you across the internet) from most sites in Private mode; Strict, to block them from all sites whether you’re in Private mode or not; and Custom to set these options more specifically.

    Firefox consults a public list of known tracking cookies to try to keep your browsing private without breaking the functionality of sites and web apps. Farther down the page, you can check the box next to Delete cookies and site data when Firefox is closed to wipe the browser of any crumbs any time you hit that X button in the corner of your screen. 

    On that same screen, you’ll find the permissions for your computer’s location, camera, microphone, and so on. These options are specific to each site, and each one will ask for permissions the first time they need them via a pop-up window. Click Settings next to each item to revoke or allow permissions for each site, or hit Remove all websites to revoke access to all of them in one fell swoop.

    Below that menu, you can set the types of data that Firefox can collect, including data about the extensions you have installed and technical details about how the browser is performing.

    How to limit tracking on Apple’s Safari

    Apple Safari privacy controls
    Like the other big browsers, Apple’s Safari will help stop some trackers. David Nield

    To get to the privacy controls for Apple Safari, open the Safari menu from the bar at the top of your screen, then choose Preferences and Privacy. You’ll see cross-site tracking—or third-party cookies—is disabled by default.

    Below that cross-site tracking option is an option labeled Block all cookies. As with the other browsers, you can choose to block all kinds of cookies if you don’t mind the inconvenience of having to repeatedly log in and set your site preferences.

    [Related: 23 useful Mac settings hiding in plain sight]

    Click on Manage Website Data to see the cookies that sites have already logged with Safari and to delete that data if you want to. The final option lets you allow websites to check whether Apple Pay is set up on your computer—another choice between convenience and privacy that’s up to you.

    Click Websites to switch tabs in the Preferences dialog. Here you’re able to control which sites and web apps can get at your camera and microphone, see your computer’s location, and display notifications and pop-up windows.

    As with the other browsers here, Safari has a private browsing mode that doesn’t keep track of your browsing history and doesn’t keep any cookies from that particular session once the browser window has been closed.

    How to limit tracking on Microsoft Edge

    Microsoft Edge privacy controls
    Microsoft Edge has gotten a lot better lately. David Nield

    Lastly, we have the Microsoft Edge browser, which comes as part of Windows. To access the privacy controls in the software, click the menu button (three dots, top right), then Settings, then Cookies and site permissions. From there, click Manage and delete cookies and site data at the top of the screen. You’ll see some toggle switches at the top, including Allow sites to save and read cookie data (recommended), and Block third-party cookies.

    You should also open the Privacy, search, and services menu, where you can choose from Basic, Balanced, and Strict tracking prevention. From the same screen, you can even view all the sites Edge has stopped from tracking you.

    As we’ve explained above, all of these options give you the option of stopping cross-site tracking from ad networks while letting individual sites keep the cookies they need to run.

    As with other browsers, the private browsing mode offered by Microsoft Edge doesn’t permanently store any cookies, so if you want a quick web session that your browser doesn’t remember, it may be easier to use that mode rather than change the main cookie settings.

    There are a smattering of other security settings here, but as far as privacy goes, the cookies are most important. Beyond that, websites and web apps will ask for permission to access your location, webcam, microphone, and so on when needed. To control these permissions, go back to the Cookies and site permissions menu and open the various options under Site permissions.

    The post How to cover your tracks while you’re browsing the web appeared first on Popular Science.

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    保护您的数字身份的最佳RFID钱包 //www.ditshub.com/188亚洲金博宝appreviews/best-rfid-wallets/ 阿什利哈伯德 星期三9月1日23:00:00 +0000 188亚洲金博宝app 商务 齿轮 货物 诺塔 188亚洲金博宝app 商店 购物 //www.ditshub.com/?p=394033
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    将其视为一个力场。

    帖子保护您数字身份的最佳RFID钱包首先出现在科普

    金博宝网址
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    Best anti-theft protection Pascafe is our pick for best rfid wallets. Pacsafe V100
    Check Price

    If your first priority is security when looking for a RFID wallet, this one will likely be a good fit.

    Best hard-sided wallet Ridge is our pick for best rfid wallets. The Ridge
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    This wallet is made for your front pocket

    Best for passports ZOPPEN is our pick for best rfid wallets. Zoppen
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    Its slim chic design is still capable of being functional and practical.

    Digital identity theft is a very real issue and electronic pickpocketing should be considered just as much as physical pickpocketing. When in close enough proximity, scanning devices can possibly be used to steal account information stored in the credit and debit cards. This is known as radio-frequency identification (RFID) skimming. It’s uncommon, but it’s also relatively simple to protect yourself against by purchasing one of the best RFID wallets. 

    The bad news is your traditional wallet likely won’t do the trick. The good news is there’s no reason to constantly worry about someone skimming your information without you even realizing it. RFID blocking wallets are very common now and work by creating a virtual shield for your RFID cards. Think of them as a force field.

    How we selected the best rfid wallets

    There’s a decent selection of RFID wallets, ranging in price, style, size, and functionality. For our final recommended list of best RFID wallets, we first took a look at dozens of choices. 

    Choosing the right one can be overwhelming. We have selected options to fit practically any lifestyle and budget as prices can range from as little as $10 to upwards of a couple hundred dollars. With the highest priced wallet on this list being less than $100, we didn’t find any additional benefits that wallets priced higher than $100 had that would make it worth spending the extra money on them. 

    We considered key features such as the level of RFID protection, the size of the wallet, style vs functionality, the material used to produce the wallet, and manufacturer reputation. Skimmers can use a wide array of devices to snoop on your info, so

    Best RFID wallet reviews and recommendations

    Best for minimalists: Buffway Slim

    Money minimalist

    This wallet is perfect for someone who doesn’t need to carry around much. Buffway

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    Specs:

    • Measures 3 ⅛” x 4 7/16” x 1/8” 
    • Weighs 1.05 oz
    • Includes 8 slots
    • Front pocket money clip

    Why it made the cut: It’s slim and lightweight, but still provides RFID blocking technology and space for your essentials ultimately making it great for individuals looking to lighten their load while protecting their identity. 

    Pros:

    • Extremely compact
    • Comes in 20+ colors 
    • Inexpensive

    Cons:

    • Not able to block 125KHz signals (i.e. hotel room keys and access cards)
    • Doesn’t form a complete cage around cards

    Having a wallet that is strong, durable, and offers RFID protection doesn’t have to automatically mean bulky. Whether you’re traveling or just prefer to not feel weighed down by a clunky wallet, a slim, minimalist wallet is a must. 

    We were impressed with the lightweight and slimness of the Buffway Slim Wallet and how it proves that big things can come in small packages. While weighing just over one ounce and ⅛ of an inch in thickness, this wallet still provides plenty of space to carry your essential cards and cash. Included are four slots that can hold credit, debit, and bank cards, one clear slot made for your ID, work badge, or driver’s license, two side-slip pockets for items such as business cards or train passes, and one middle pocket for cash, tickets, receipts, and more.

    This wallet is equipped with a protective layer that blocks 13-14Mhz electronic signals, which includes the most common radio frequencies, from trying to retrieve your personal information.

    The Buffway Slim Wallet is available in almost 30 different colors ranging from neutrals to pastels to bright hues. Each wallet is 100% genuine leather with a polyester lining.

    Best zippered wallet: Travelambo

    Zip it up

    This wallet is a good choice for someone looking for plenty of compartments while still being stylish.
    Travelambo

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    Specs:

    • Measures 8” x 4” x 1”
    • 100% leather

    Why it made the cut: Its design includes zipper and button closures giving users an alternative to a bifold or trifold. 

    Pros:

    • Plenty of space
    • Comes in 30+ colors 
    • Affordable

    Cons:

    • Requires some breaking in
    • Can get bulky fairly quickly 
    • Doesn’t fit more recent (larger) smart phones

    The Travelambo zippered wallet is impressive first and foremost for its large capacity. It offers 16 slots for cards, 1 window slot for an ID card, and 2 zippered pockets. Your credit and debit cards, receipts, coupons, cash, and more can all easily fit in this practical and stylish wallet without feeling like it’s overloaded. You can use the inner button when the wallet is on the fuller side and the further button while empty.

    The Travelambo wallet is available in more than 30 color options ranging from basic neutrals to bold colors. Each wallet is handmade from genuine leather. Because it fully closes around the cards, it creates a more effective layer of RFID protection than an open-faced wallet.

    Best hard-sided wallet: The Ridge

    Tactical traits

    This wallet is made for your front pocket Ridge

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    Specs:

    • Military-grade 6061-T6 aluminum
    • Anodized gunmetal plates
    • Weighs 2 ounces
    • Interchangeable elastic and screws
    • Removable money clip or cash strap

    Why it made the cut: Its design is very unique compared to other wallets and it’s super-durable. 

    Pros:

    • Military-grade materials
    • Minimal design
    • Lots of material options

    Cons:

    • Less color choices than others
    • Highest price on the list
    • Some finishes scratch easliy

    With design and functionality in mind, the